BS 1176:2008British Standard relating to ‘Playground equipment and surfacing. General safety requirements and test methods’.
BS 14774:2009British Standard published by the European Committee for Standardisation relating to ‘Solid biofuels. Determination of moisture content. Oven dry method. Total moisture. Reference/Simplified method’.
BS 14778:2011British Standard published by the European Committee for Standardisation relating to ‘Solid biofuels. Sampling’.
BS 14780:2011British Standard published by the European Committee for Standardisation relating to ‘Solid biofuels. Sample preparation’.
BS 14961-1:2010British Standard published by the European Committee for Standardisation relating to ‘Solid biofuels. Fuel specifications and classes. General requirements’.
BS 14961-4:2011British Standard published by the European Committee for Standardisation relating to ‘Solid biofuels. Fuel specifications and classes. Wood chips for non-industrial use’.
BS 14961-5:2011British Standard published by the European Committee for Standardisation relating to ‘Solid biofuels. Fuel specifications and classes. Firewood for non-industrial use’.
BS 3998:2010British Standard relating to ‘Tree work. Recommendations’
BS 5837:2012British Standard relating to ‘Trees in relation to design, demolition and construction. Recommendations’
Calorific valueAmount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of a given material. In the woodfuel industry it is expressed in MWh/t (energy per weight), and it increases as moisture content decreases.
Carbon cycleThe cycle by which carbon in various forms moves between the various components of the Earth’s biosphere, between the atmosphere, hydrosphere (seas and oceans), lithosphere (rocks, soils and mineral deposits, including fossil fuels) and biological material including plants and animals. Carbon is constantly moving between some of these forms, maintaining a state of dynamic equilibrium. Other forms, most notably fossil fuels, can potentially store carbon indefinitely, however if they are burned the carbon is released and makes a net addition to the carbon cycle and raising the total free carbon. If biomass is used without replacement, as for instance can happen in the case of forest clearance such as in the Amazon rain forest, this too can make a net addition to the carbon cycle. Sustainable use of biomass, however, makes no such direct net addition as growing replacement plant material absorbs the carbon released by the harvested biomass. Source: Biomass Energy Centre website
Carbon-leanA carbon-lean process or product is one that only generates a small quantity of Green House Gases (GHG) whilst being performed or manufactured. It is different from carbon-neutral, which means the overall balance of GHG is nil.
Co-dominantBranches of similar size above a fork in a tree are co-dominant.
Crown cleaningRemoval of deadwood from the crown (branches, shoots and foliage) of a tree. Also called ‘deadwooding’.
Crown liftingRemoval of lower branches of a tree to increase the headroom to the base of the crown (branches, shoots and foliage).
Crown reductionForm of pruning consisting in the diminishing of the extent of the crown (branches, shoots and foliage) without primarily decreasing its density, in order to reduce loading, balance the crown, mitigate a nuisance etc.
Crown thinningForm of pruning consisting in the removal of individual branches from the crown (branches, shoots and foliage) to reduce its density without primarily reducing its extent.
DeadwoodNaturally-occurring dead, dying, damaged or diseased branches in a live tree, which are removed as part of crown cleaning operations.
FellingThe cutting down of a full tree, leaving behind a stump.
ForkStructural characteristic in a tree's structure at which one stem divides into two. The main stem may support a subsidiary branch, or the two limbs of the fork may be of similar size (co-dominant).
Formative pruningPruning of young trees to alter their shape at maturity, used to avoid future structural defects or to create a desired tree shape.
Hedge trimmingSmall hedges may be within safe reach of householders but taller and wider hedges may require specialist hedge cutting tools, equipment and skills. The TreeStation has specialist equipment for dealing with larger hedges and can also offer a tractor flail service.
High Hedges legislationIntroduced in 2005 as Part 8 of the Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003, this law requires everyone with a high hedge to consider the affect of such hedge on their neighbours. It gives Local authorities the power to deal with high hedges-related complaints, after all alternative ways of resolving the dispute have been tried and exhausted.
Industrial symbiosisSharing of resources, materials, by-products, assets, logistics and expertise among diverse industries and organisations, with the aim of improving resource efficiency and sustainability.
kWhThe kilowatt hour is a unit of energy equivalent to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power expended for one hour (1 h) of time. It is used in the biomass industry as a way to compare cost per unit of energy.
LoanstockLoanstock is a type of unsecured loan with a fixed rate of interest and fixed date of repayment. Loanstock schemes are a way for co-operatives and some companies to raise investment from a large number of supporters.
LoppingCutting of part(s) of a tree to reduce their length. Generally takes the form of indiscriminate, severe and improper pruning, with consequent damage to tree appearance and health. This is not regarded as good practice.
Moisture contentQuantity of water contained in a material, expressed as a percentage: zero being completely dry. In the woodfuel industry it is reported as a mass ratio, often on a wet basis (as received), i.e. mass of water divided by total mass of wood. It is measured using an oven or portable instantaneous moisture meters.
OnormÖnorm stands for Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, the Austrian Standards Institute which has produced some of the early standards for the biomass industry.
PollardingA system of tree management involving the cyclical removal of the crown of a tree, retaining a framework of larger limbs. It is a long-established, intentional and planned approach applied to particular species of tree which are adapted to the treatment. Unlike lopping or topping, pollarding is an accepted practice.
PruningRemoval of selected parts of a tree/shrub with the intention to direct growth, mitigate a nuisance, remove a diseased or hazardous part, increase longevity, simulate natural damage, enhance habitat for wildlife etc. Formative pruning: Pruning of young trees to alter their shape at maturity, used to avoid future structural defects or to create a desired tree shape.
StemCommonly known as trunk.
Stump decayDead stumps, i.e. the lower part of a tree remaining in the ground or just above it after it has been cut down, decay over time (usually several year in the UK). The rate depends on various factors including size, and species and it may be desirable to accelerate it for stump removal purposes.
Stump grinderSpecialised power tool with a rotating disc chipping away the wood of a stump (lower part of a tree remaining in the ground or just above it after it has been cut down), to reduce it to below ground level.
Stump removalRemoval of the lower part of a tree remaining in the ground or just above it after it has been cut down, commonly performed by grinding it (see stump grinder). Other means include excavation with earth-moving machinery, pulling out with much of the root system, setting on fire, cutting to below mowing level or voluntarily accelerating the decay (see stump decay). An alternative in the garden context is to leave the stump high and make a feature of it.
ToppingSimilar to lopping in terms of damage to trees, topping refers to the severe reduction in the height of a tree by the removal of a significant proportion of the vertical extent of the crown. Sadly, topping occurs all too frequently, leading to disfigurement of the tree, and damaging long-term effects on tree health and safety. This is not regarded as good practice.
Woodland thinningRemoval of a given proportion of trees (e.g. 30%), generally to improve the growth rate or health of the remaining trees.